Documents about Internet Voting

Documents, source code and other information materials since the elections of 2017. Earlier documents are located in the menu Historical Materials.


General documents

The general description provides a comprehensive, but not deeply detailed overview of the technical and organisational framework of internet voting and its implementation at the national elections in Estonia. The purpose of information security policy is to ensure the security of the system for internet voting. 

The technical requirements have been drafted on the basis of the fundamental principles of election law in order to ensure the observance of the principles of organising the internet voting. The description of the organisation defines the range of the parties involved, and the composition of task force.


Instructions for end user

Voter instructions for internet voting and using the individual verification application on the smartphone to check if the vote has reached the collector and to verify the choice.


Technical instructions for operating the system

Configurations Instruction describes the preparation and overview of the internet voting information system applications and collection service configurations. Collection Service System Operator Instruction covers the work with the collection service software from the viewpoint of the system administrator, and describes all possibilities provided by the software within the scope of the whole i-voting process. Collection Service Administration Service User Interface Instruction is intended for the users administering the collection service. I-voting Handbook has been drafted with the aim of describing the guidelines for conducting the i-voting.



The document on architecture describes the components of the system, their mutual interfaces and interfaces with the external systems, and the protocols realised by the components. The document on protocols defines the common terminology and data structures used in the protocols. The Key Application is a tool that is used to generate the key for encrypting the votes and opening the votes for each voting. The Key Application is also used to count the votes and issue the results.


Source code

The published source code contains the source codes of the Internet voting software, the individual verification application, the mixing application and the audit application. This source code has been in use since the elections of 2017, and the latest, updated version has been published.


Additional reading

The general framework requires using the public key cryptosystem with non-deterministic and homomorphic properties to protect the secrecy of vote. Requirements to the cryptosystem describe it in greater detail.